短破折号(–)与长破折号(—)的用法

破折号有两种:(1)短破折号与(2)长破折号。许多人会混用这两种破折号。不过,它们各有不同的用途:短破折号(–)最常用来表示范围,而长破折号(—)则用来标示句子里的停顿。

短破折号用于数字之间表示起讫日期

短破折号可以用来表示起讫日期“从……到……”。该使用与同样表示起讫日期的“to”类似。

Example
Please solve problems 1-14 at the end of chapter 3.
Example
The school is accepting applications for the 2021-2022 academic year.
Example
She has a 12pm-12am shift.

要注意的重点是,短破折号不能取代“from...to...”里的 to。

Incorrect
She worked on her book from 2003-2013.
Correct
She worked on her book from 2003 to 2013.

长破折号用以表示句中停顿

长破折号用来表示思想上的中断或转移。这么说看起来不够明确,其实意思就是长破折号可以取代几种不同的标点符号:逗号、括号、分号和冒号。

使用长破折号可以取代逗号和括号。

With Commas
The evening sky, colored pink by the setting sun, was beautiful.
With Parentheses
The evening sky (colored pink by the setting sun) was beautiful.
With Em Dashes
The evening sky – colored pink by the setting sun — was beautiful.

长破折号可以取代分号。它不像分号那么正式,而且最常用来强调重点或语意的变化。

With a Semicolon
Mr. Mercer bought the book for fifteen thousand dollars; it was a first edition copy of Nabokov’s “Lolita.”
With an Em Dash
Mr. Mercer bought the book for fifteen thousand dollars — it was a first edition copy of Nabokov’s “Lolita.”

长破折号也可以取代冒号。它比冒号随意,强调性更重。

With a Colon
Ishiguro has finally released his new title: Klara and the Sun.
With an Em Dash
Ishiguro has finally released his new title — Klara and the Sun.

用短破折号取代长破折号

人们经常混用短破折号和长破折号,尤其是在非学术性的文章里。有趣的是,短破折号有时可以取代长破折号。但要注意的是,这种取代在英式英语中比美式英语更普遍。此外,切记要在同一篇文稿内让所有标点符号保持前后一致。

Incorrect
Ishiguro has finally released his new title - Klara and the Sun.
Correct
The evening sky - colored pink by the setting sun - was beautiful.