论文参考文献格式类型与「et al.」用法

期刊论文投稿,研究论文写作

A Researchers Guide to Citations- listing authors

发表论文除了分享发现之外,更多的是想让这一领域的研究更广为人知。读者可以透过被引用的文献来完整了解作者的想法与新发现。可惜的是,关于引用的规定有千百种,很少人能够彻底掌握。我们收集了一系列的文章帮助你了解不同的引用要求。这篇文章主要在如何为引用文献的作者列表,包含使用拉丁字”et al”的时机。麻烦的是期刊少有统一的格式,因此,即使有以下的详细总整理,各位务必还是得先检查按照投稿期刊的作者须知来修改标点符号和引用文献格式等。

参考文献格式的主要类型有?

当在论文中提及引用的文章时,相关信息可以让读者轻松找到原文章。在研究论文中引用时,可以使用endnotes、footnotes或in-text citations。不论是哪种格式都需要在文件的最后方提供文献列表。

  • In-text (or parenthetical) citations 文内注: 当你在论文段落中要使用文献的作者或标题来引用时,你就是在使用文内注。这个方法也被称作是「括号引用(parenthetical citations)」,因为引用的资讯通常都在括号内。
  • Endnotes and footnotes 尾注和脚注: 尾注和脚注是简化论文很方便的方法。利用简便的符号系统,在内文中使用数字引用文献。这个数字对应论文最后一部分(尾注)的资讯,或者在文献引用的该页的最下方 (脚注)。尾注和脚注比较少在scientific writing中使用,但很常被使用在人文与社会科学领域中。 另外,脚注和尾注替换了括号引用,也就是文内注的方式,因此,如果你选用脚注和尾注,则必须避免使用文内注。
  • Reference lists 文献列表: 文献列表放在论文的最后一部分,汇编了论文中引用的所有文章,以提供读者参考。在论文中提到的任何资料都必须呈现在文献列表当中。

什么是「et al.」?

拉丁用语时常出现在学术写作中,其中一种是「Et al.」,为「et alii」的缩写,意思是「and others」 ,主要用于表示人名列表,功能有点像是「et cetera」 。 「et cetera」 是另一个常见的拉丁用语,缩写是「etc.」,意思是「and the rest」。

「et al.」跟「etc.」有什么差别?

如上所述,「et al.」只限定用在人名列表,而「etc.」只用在事物上面。除此之外,功能都是替换一个列表。

什么时候使用「et al.」?

使用「et al.」务必确认目标期刊的写作风格指南中是否有拉丁语使用与引用的规定以确保使用正确。虽然「et al.」没有通用的规则,但至少拼写的部分都是一样的,都是小写(除非是句子的开头)以及在al.后方有一个句点,即使使用的位置是在句中。 “al.”是alii的缩写,而且et al.整个前面至少放一个人名、职位或职称。也就是说,“et al.” 替换了在尾注、脚注与文内注的人名。 但这不可以用在文献列表中,下面的段落提供进一步详细资讯以及范文。

如何引用参考文献: 作者名字

这个部分解释如何在引用列表中列出作者。以下以作者数量、文献种类为分类,涵盖了多数的风格规范:

  • American Psychological Association (APA) style;
  • Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago style); and
  • Modern Language Association (MLA) style.

*有些期刊,像是在Nature出版集团下的,有自己的引用指南。当不太确定该用哪一个十时,请重复确认期刊要求以取得最正确信息。

APA style: 关于列表作者信息

APA style 时常用在社会科学领域,书本与期刊引用的范文都在下方。想了解其他资讯以及特殊案例,请点这里,也可查看 Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association< /em>, (6th ed., 2nd printing)。

Note: APA uses the ampersand (&) to list authors.

 

引用文献列表

同一规则适用于所有的源媒体,包含书本、印刷期刊和电子期刊等等。另外,现在阅读电子期刊成为学术界的常态,美国心理学会推荐将数位物件辨识号(Digital Obeject Identifier, DOI)一起放进去,即使是实体文稿。

*不要在DOI后面加上句点 (.)

作者数量 符号
One Books:[Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Title of book: Capitalize first word of subtitle]. [City, State abbreviation/Country for non-US publications]: [Publisher].Smith, M. T. (2017). Epigenetic mechanisms: An overview. Lima, Peru: PublishCo.Journals:[Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Article title]. [Journal Title], [Volume number] (issue number), [Page range for whole article]. doi:10.XXXX.XXXXXXMiller, J. M. (2017). Trauma caretaking and compassion fatigue. Trauma Prevention, 14 (2), 243-45. doi: 10.XXXX.XXXXXX
Two
(Use “&”)
Books:[Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., & [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Title of book: Capitalize first word of subtitle]. [City, State abbreviation/Country for non-US publications]: [Publisher].Miller, J. M., & Wallace, R. A. (2017). Epigenetic mechanisms: An overview. Lima, Peru: PublishCo.Journals:[Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., & [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Article title]. [Journal Title], [Volume number] (issue number), [Page range for whole article]. doi:10.XXXX.XXXXXXMiller, J. M., & Wallace, R. A. (2017). Trauma caretaking and compassion fatigue. Trauma Prevention, 14 (2), 243-45. doi: 10.XXXX.XXXXXX
Three to seven
(Commas separate author names; use “&” before the last author name)
Books:[Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., …, & [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Title of book: Capitalize first word of subtitle]. [City, State Abbreviation/Country for non-US publications]: [Publisher].Miller, J. M., Wallace, R. A., …, & Johnson, C. T. (2017). Epigenetic mechanisms: An overview. Lima, Peru: PublishCo.Journals:[Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., …, [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Article title]. [Journal Title], [Volume number] (issue number), [Page range for whole article]. doi:10.XXXX.XXXXXXMiller, J. M., Wallace, R. A., …, & Johnson, C. T. (2017). Trauma caretaking and compassion fatigue. Trauma Prevention, 14 (2), 243-45. doi: 10.XXXX.XXXXXX
More than seven
(List the first six authors, then use an ellipsis (…) and list the last author;  no “&” before the final author name)
Books:[Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Title of book: Capitalize first word of subtitle]. [City, State Abbreviation/Country for non-US publications]: [Publisher].Miller, J. M., Wallace, R. A., Smith, M. T., Lewis, R. V., Higgs, R. Q., Young, D. A., Johnson, C. T. (2017). Epigenetic mechanisms: An overview. Lima, Peru: PublishCo.Journals:[Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]., [Last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year]). [Article title]. [Journal Title], [Volume number] (issue number), [Page range for whole article]. doi:10.XXXX.XXXXXXMiller, J. M., Wallace, R. A., Smith, M. T., Lewis, R. V., Higgs, R. Q., Young, D. A., Johnson, C. T. (2017). Trauma caretaking and compassion fatigue. Trauma Prevention, 14 (2), 243-45. doi: 10.XXXX.XXXXXX

 

尾注和脚注

APA style不使用脚注也强烈建议不要使用尾注,因此,这一类的文章提供的资讯很有限。但有时候,注解是必须的,在这样的情况下,使用在Section 2.12 of the APA Publication Manual中的符号。

 

文内注或括号引用(author-date system)

APA style使用作者日期符号,文内注则适用于电子和印刷书籍和期刊。 *Note: The author-number thresholds for changing formatting are different from those for reference lists. 再者,虽然不一定需要提供释义陈述的页码,美国心理学会还是推荐引用页码。

作者数量 Author names mentioned in your statement Quoting or paraphrasing WITHOUT mentioning author in your statement
One [Last name] ([Year]) has argued that [“Quote”/paraphrased statement] (p. [Page(s) referenced]).Miller (2017) has argued that “quote”/paraphrased statement (p. 14). [“Quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Last name], [Year], [Page(s) referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith, 2017, pp. 23-25).
Two
(Use “&”)
[Last name] & [Last name] ([Year]) have argued that [“Quote”/paraphrased statement] (p. [Page(s) referenced]).Miller & Jones (2017) have argued that “quote”/paraphrased Statement (p. 14). [“Quote”/paraphrased statement] ([Last name], [Last name], & [Last name], [Year], p. [Page(s) referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith & Wallace, 2015, p. 34).
Three to five
(Use “&” for first mention and “et al.” for subsequent references to the same work)
First mention:[Last name], [Last name], & [Last name] ([Year]) have argued that ["quote"/paraphrased statement] (p. [Page(s) referenced]).Miller, Smith, & Thompson (2017) have argued that “quote”/paraphrased statement (p. 14). Subsequent mentions:[Last name] et al. ([Year]) have argued that ["quote"/paraphrased statement] (p. [Page(s) referenced]).Miller et al. (2017) have argued that “quote”/paraphrased statement (p. 14). First mention:["Quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Last name], [Last name], & [Last name], [Year], p. [Page(s) referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith, Wallace, & Thompson, 2015, p. 34).Subsequent mentions:["Quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] et al., [Year], p. [Page(s) referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith et al., 2015, p. 34).
Six or more [Last name] et al. ([Year]) have argued that ["quote"/paraphrased statement] (p. [Page(s) referenced]).Miller et al. (2017) have argued that “quote”/paraphrased statement (p. 14). ["Quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] et al. [Year], p. [Page(s) Referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith et al., 2015, p. 34).

 

芝加哥格式(Chicago style)

Chicago style很常使用在人文领域中,因此以下我们只针对一般的书籍和期刊引用格式。想了解更多资讯,请点击这里,也可以看The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition的Chapters 14 和15 。想参考使用符号的范例,请点击这里查看Purdue Owl’s NB的范例。 想参考author-date论文范例,可以看这里。如果电子正式发表论文的话,例如电子学术期刊,你不用写上你查找资讯的日期,除非你投稿的期刊有特别要求。如果没有DOI可使用的话,提供网址。 Chicago style格式不像APA style,芝加哥格式在人名列表中不使用&符号,他们使用and。 另外, 作者的名(first and middle) 必须全部拼写(不能缩写),除非该位作者发表时持续使用缩写。

 

文献列表(Reference lists)

书籍

作者数量 Bibliographic system (humanities) Author-date system (social, natural, and physical sciences)
One [Last name], [First name(s)]. [Book Title]. [Location]: [Publisher], [Year].Smith, Mary. Epigenetic Mechanisms. New York: PublishCo, 2017. [Last name], [First name(s)]. [Year]. [Book Title]. [Location]: [Publisher].Smith, Mary. 2017. Epigenetic Mechanisms. New York: PublishCo.
Two or more
(List ALL authors)
[Last name], [First name(s)], [First name(s)] [Last name], …, and [First name(s)] [Last name]. [Book Title]. [Location]: [Publisher], [Year].Smith, Mary T., Mark Allen, Helen Carter, …, and George Turner. Epigenetic Mechanisms. New York: PublishCo, 2017. [Last name], [First name(s)], [First name(s)] [Last name], …, and [First name(s)] [Last name]. [Year]. [Book Title]. [Location]: [Publisher].Smith, Mary T., Mark Allen, Helen Carter, …, and George Turner. 2017. Epigenetic Mechanisms. New York: PublishCo.

期刊

作者数量 Bibliographic system (humanities) Author-date system (social, natural, and physical sciences)
One Print:[Last name], [First name(s)]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page range for whole article].Miller, Jack M. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45.Online:[Last name], [First name(s)]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page range for whole article]. Accessed [Month DD, YYYY]. doi: [DOI Number].Miller, Jack. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45. Accessed June 12, 2017. doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX. Print:[Last Name], [First Name(s)]. [Year]. “[Article Title].” [Journal Title] [Volume Number], no. [Issue Number]: [Page Range for Whole Article].Miller, Jack M. 2017. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4: 243-45.Online:[Last Name], [First name(s)]. [Year]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number]: [Page range for whole article]. Accessed [Month DD, YYYY]. doi: [DOI Number].Miller, Jack. 2017. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4: 243-45. Accessed June 12, 2017. doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX.
More than two
(List ALL authors)
Print:[Last name], [First name(s)], [First name(s)] [Last name], …, and [First name(s)] [Last name]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page range for whole article].Miller, Jack M., Mary Rogers, …, and David L. Smith. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45.Online:[Last name], [First name(s)], [First name(s)] [Last name], …, and [First name(s)] [Last name]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page range for whole article]. Accessed [Month DD, YYYY]. doi: [DOI number].Miller, Jack M., Mary Rogers, …, and David L. Smith. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45. Accessed June 12, 2017. doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX. Print:[Last name], [First name(s)], [First name(s)] [Last name], …, and [First name(s)] [Last name]. [Year]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number]: [Page range for whole article].Miller, Jack M., Mary Rogers, …, and David L. Smith. 2017. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4: 243-45.Online:[Last name], [First name(s)], [First name(s)] [Last name], …, and [First name(s)] [Last name]. [Year]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number]: [Page range for whole article]. Accessed [Month DD, YYYY]. doi: [DOI Number].Miller, Jack M., Mary Rogers, …, and David L. Smith. 2017. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4: 243-45. Accessed June 12, 2017. doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX.

 

脚注和尾注 Endnotes and footnotes (Bibliographic system)

书籍

作者数量 Bibliographic system (humanities)
One First mention:[First name(s)] [Last name], [Book Title] ([Location]: [Publisher], [Year]), [Page(s) referenced].Mary T. Smith, Epigenetic Mechanisms: an Overview (New York: PublishCo, 2017), 23-35.Subsequent mentions:[Last Name], [Shortened book title], [Page(s) referenced].Smith, Epigenetic Mechanisms, 55.
Two to three First mention:[First name(s)] [Last name], [First name(s)] [Last name], and [First name(s)] [Last name], [Book Title] ([Location]: [Publisher], [Year]), [Page(s) referenced].Mary T. Smith, Leslie Wilson, and George Turner, Epigenetic Mechanisms: an Overview (New York: PublishCo, 2017), 68-69.Subsequent mentions:[Last name], [Last name], and [Last name], [Shortened Book Title], [Page(s) referenced].Smith, Wilson, and Turner, Epigenetic Mechanisms, 70-75.
Four or more
(Use “et al.”)
First mention:[First name(s)] [Last name] et al., [Book Title] ([Location]: [Publisher], [Year]), [Page(s) referenced].Mary T. Smith et al., Epigenetic Mechanisms: an Overview (New York: PublishCo, 2017), 23-35.Subsequent mentions:[Last name] et al., [Shortened Book Title], [Page(s) referenced].Smith et. al, Epigenetic Mechanisms, 55.

期刊

作者数量 Bibliographic system (humanities)
One First mention:

  • Print:[First name(s)] [Last name], “[Article title],” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page(s) referenced].

Jack Miller, “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue,” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45.

  • Online:[First name(s)] [Last name], “[Article title],” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page(s) referenced], accessed [Month DD, YYYY], doi: [DOI Number].

Jack Miller, “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue,” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45, accessed June 12, 2017, doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX.

Subsequent mentions (for both print and online):

[Last Name], “Shortened Article Title,”] [Page(s) Referenced].

Miller, “Trauma Caretaking,” 244.

Two to three First mention:

  • Print:[First name(s)] [Last name], [First name(s)] [Last name], and [First name(s)] [Last name], “[Article Title],” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page(s) referenced].

Jack Miller, Mary Rogers, and David L. Smith, “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue,” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45.

  • Online:[First name(s)] [Last name], [First name(s)] [Last name], and [First name(s)] [Last name], “[Article title],” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page(s) referenced], accessed [Month DD, YYYY], doi: [DOI Number].

Jack Miller, Mary Rogers, and David L. Smith, “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue,” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45, accessed June 12, 2017, doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX.

Subsequent mentions (for both print and online):

[Last name], [Last name], and [Last name], “Shortened article title,”] [Page(s) referenced].

Miller, Rogers, and Smith, “Trauma Caretaking,” 244.

Four or more
(Use “et al.”)
First mention:

  • Print:[First name(s)] [Last name] et al., “[Article title],” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page(s) referenced].

Jack Miller et al., “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue,” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45.

  • Online:[First name(s)] [Last name] et al. “[Article title],” [Journal Title] [Volume number], no. [Issue number] ([Year]): [Page(s) referenced], accessed [Month DD, YYYY], doi: [DOI Number].

Jack Miller et al., “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue,” Trauma Prevention 14, no. 4 (2017): 243-45, accessed June 12, 2017, doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX.

Subsequent mentions (for both print and online):

[Last name] et al., “Shortened article title,”] [Page(s) Referenced].

Miller et al., “Trauma Caretaking,” 244.

文内注 In-text or parenthetical citations (Author-date system)

括号引用法常在的文内注方法中看到,常用于社会,物理和自然科学领域。书籍和期刊的电子版本与实体版本也使用相同的符号。

作者数量 Author names mentioned in your statement Quoting or paraphrasing WITHOUT mentioning author in your statement
One [Last name] ([Year]) argues that ["quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Page(s) referenced]).Miller (2017) argues that “quote”/paraphrased Statement (14). ["Quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] [Year], [Page(s) referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith 2017, 23-25).
Two to three [Last name] and [Last name] ([Year]) argue that ["quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Page(s) referenced]).Miller and Jones (2017) argue that “quote”/paraphrased statement (14). ["Quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Last name], [Last name], and [Last name] [Year], [Page(s) referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith, Rogers, and Wallace 2015, 34).
Four or more
(Use “et al.”)
[Last name] et al. ([Year]) argue that ["quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Page(s) referenced]).Miller et al. (2017) argue that “quote”/paraphrased statement (14). ["Quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] et al. [Year], [Page(s) referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith et al. 2015, 34).

 

MLA style

MLA style时常用于人文领域,详细内容可参考以下。想知道其他媒体或是特殊案例,请见MLA Handbook (8th ed.)。

文献列表 (works cited page)

作者数量 Books Journals
One [Last name], [First name] [Middle initial]. [Book Title]. [Publisher], [Year]. Smith, Mary T. Epigenetic Mechanisms: an Overview. PublishCo, 2017. Print:[Last name], [First name]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title], vol. [Volume], no. [Issue], [Date], pp. [Pages]. Miller, Jack. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention, vol. 14, no. 4, 2017, pp. 243-45.Online:[Last name], [First name]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title], vol. [Volume], no. [Issue], [Date], pp. [Pages]. [Electronic database], doi: [DOI number]. Accessed [DD MM YYYY].Miller, Jack. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention, vol. 14, no. 4, 2017, pp. 243-45. JournalDatabase, doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX. Accessed 19 June 2017.
Two [Last name], [First name] and [First name] [Last name]. [Book Title]. [Publisher], [Year].Smith, Mary T., and George Thompson. Epigenetic Mechanisms: an Overview. PublishCo, 2017. Print:[Last name], [First name] and [First name] [Last name]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title], vol. [Volume], no. [Issue], [Year], pp. [Pages].Miller, Jack, and George Thompson. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention, vol. 14, no. 4, 2017, pp. 243-45.Online:[Last name], [First name] and [First name] [Last name]. “[Article title].” [Journal Title], vol. [Volume], no. [Issue], [Year], pp. [Pages]. [Electronic database], doi: [DOI number]. Accessed [DD MM YYYY].Miller, Jack, and George Thompson. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention, vol. 14, no. 4, 2017, pp. 243-45. JournalDatabase, doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX. Accessed 19 June 2017.
Three or more [Last name], [First name], et al. [Book Title]. [Publisher], [Year].Smith, Mary T., et al. Epigenetic Mechanisms: an Overview. PublishCo, 2017. Print:[Last name], [First name], et al. “[Article title].” [Journal Title], vol. [Volume], no. [Issue], [Year], pp. [Pages].Miller, Jack, et al. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention, vol. 14, no. 4, 2017, pp. 243-45.Online:[Last name], [First name], et al. “[Article title].” [Journal Title], vol. [Volume], no. [Issue], [Year], pp. [Pages]. [Electronic database], doi: [DOI number]. Accessed [DD MM YYYY].Miller, Jack, et al. “Trauma Caretaking and Compassion Fatigue.” Trauma Prevention, vol. 14, no. 4, 2017, pp. 243-45. JournalDatabase, doi: XX.XXXX/XXXXXX. Accessed 19 June 2017.

 

脚注和尾注(Endnotes and footnotes)

MLA style格式一般不太鼓励使用脚注和尾注,但需要使用不属于论文内文的资讯来澄清时,还是会使用。这些注解的格式文内注的格式有点像(详见下方),但是没有括弧:

  • See [last name] [page range].

See Miller 153-45.

  • See [last name], especially [page range], for [content topic].

See Miller, especially 64-68, for additional information about this phenomenon.

  • Regarding [content topic], see [last name] [page range] and [last name] [page range]; for [content topic], see [last name] [page range], [last name] [page range], and [last name] [page range].

Regarding this phenomenon’s impact on trauma caretakers, see Miller 54-68 and Willis 23-25; for alternative explanations, see Jones 23-25, Thompson 64-55, and Smith 12-15.

  • [Comment]. See [last name] [page range], [last name] [page range], [last name] [page range].

Other interview-based studies were conducted on trauma victim caretakers. See Miller 12-45, Thompson 63-69, and Jones 5-8.

文内注 In-text (parenthetical)

MLA style格式使用author-page style,不是author-date style。

作者数量 Author names mentioned in your statement Quoting or paraphrasing WITHOUT mentioning author in your statement
One [Last name] argues that ["quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Page(s) referenced]).Miller argues that “quote”/paraphrased statement (14). ["Quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] [Page(s) Referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith 23-25).
Two
(Use “and”)
[Last name] and [Last name] argue that ["quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Page(s) referenced]).Miller and Jones argue that “quote”/paraphrased statement (14). ["Quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] and [Last name] [Page(s) referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith and Wallace 34).
Three or more
(Use “et al.”)
[Last name] et al. argue that ["quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Page(s) referenced]).Miller et al. argue that “quote”/paraphrased statement (14). ["Quote"/paraphrased statement] ([Last name] et al. [Page(s) referenced]).“Quote”/paraphrased statement (Smith et al. 34).

 

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