论文中常用的转折、连接词跟短语

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土豆视频:论文中常用的转折、连接词跟短语

 

英语论文中常见的转折用法

转折词的功能?

转折是一个主题换到另一个主题之间的转变,可以藉由转折词或短语来表现。转折部分时常放在句首、独立子句和段落里,因此为不同的主题和想法之间建立连结。转折也是用来建立论文的「脉络」,并使各部分有逻辑地相互连接,进而让清楚易懂。

转折用法的分类

我们可以将所有的转折用法分成四类:

  • Additive transitions 提醒读者你要新增或参照其他资讯
  • Adversative transitions 指出信息之间的冲突或不一致
  • Causal transitions 指出后果和因果关系
  • Sequential transitions 澄清顺序和信息的序列和论文的整体架构

Additive Transitions

这一类的转折皆表示在句子和段落之间有新信息加入,功能包含介绍或强调重点、参照先前提到的信息、加上新的状况或指名某一部分的信息是相当重要的。

目的

常用用法

常用句

范文

新增信息 Also; Additionally; Furthermore; Moreover In addition to; As well as; In fact; Not only…but also; As a matter of fact Furthermore, the data shows that X is a significant factor.”“In addition to the above-mentioned study, Rogers also presents…”
介绍/强调 Particularly; Notably; Especially For example/instance; To illustrate; In particular; One example (of this is) Notably, only two species of this fish survive.”“One example of this phenomenon is X.”
参照 Considering (this); Concerning (this); Regarding (this) As for (this); The fact that; With regards to (this); On the subject of (this); Looking at (this information) Considering the amount of research in this area, little evidence has been found.”“With regards to the Blue Whale, its teeth are also the largest of any mammal.”
展现相似性 Similarly; Likewise; Equally By the same token; In the same way; In a similar way Likewise, the algorithm was applied to Y.”“By the same token, this principle can be applied to Z.”
澄清/辨识重要信息 Specifically; Namely That is (to say); In other words; (To) put (it) another way; What this means is; This means (that) “There are two factors: namely, X and Y.”“In other words, the fall of the Empire was caused by over-expansion.”

Adversative Transitions

这些用法用来区分事实、论点和其他信息,可利用比对以展现相异处或提供反对论点、质疑某个事实或论点的重要性或替换并提供其他替换。

目的

常用用法

常用句

范文

比对/ 展现相异点 But; Still; However; While; Whereas; Conversely; (and) yet In contrast; On the contrary; On the other hand; …when in fact; By way of contrast However, there is still more research needed.”“On the other hand, the 1997 study does not recognize these outcomes.”
辨别 / 强调 Indeed; Besides; Significantly; Primarily Even more; Above all; More/Most importantly Indeed, a placebo is essential to any pharmaceutical study.”“Most importantly, the X enzyme increased.”
承认一个论点 Nevertheless; Nonetheless; Although; Despite (this); However; Regardless (of this); Admittedly Even so; Even though; In spite of (this); Notwithstanding (this); Be that as it may Nevertheless, X is still an important factor.”“In spite of this fact, New York still has a high standard of living.”“Although this may be true, there are still other factors to consider.”
弱化论点或假说 Regardless (of) Either way; In any case; In any event; Whatever happens; All the same; At any rate Regardless of the result, this fact is true.”“Either way, the effect is the same.”“In any event, this will not change the public’s view.”
替换 / 指出一个替换方法 Instead (of); (or) rather; (or) at least Instead of using X, the scientists used Z.”“Or rather, why not implement a brand new policy?”

Causal Transitions

以下这些转折指出原因、条件、目的、前提和因果关系,通常出现于论文中的一个重要观点被建立之后或为了讨论假设性的关系或情况。

目的

常用用法

常用句

范文

表示一个起因或原因 Since; For; As; Because (of the fact that) Due to (the fact that); For the reason that; Owing to (the fact); Inasmuch as Since the original sample group was too small, researchers called for more participants.”“Due to budgetary demands, funding will be cut in half.”
解释条件 If…then; Unless; Granting (that); Granted (that); Provided (that) In the event that; As/So long as; Only if Unless these conditions change, more will need to be done.”“As long as there is oxygen, there will be oxygenation.”
展现效果/结果 Consequently; Therefore; Thus; Accordingly; Because (of this) As a result (of this); For this reason; As a consequence; So much (so) that Therefore, we can conclude that this was an asymmetric catalysis.”“As a consequence, many consumers began to demand safer products.”
展现目的 For the purpose(s) of; With (this fact) in mind; In the hope that; In order that/to; So as to For the purpose of following standards, X rule was observed.”“With the current state of pandas in mind, this study focused on preservation.”
强调前提的重要性 Otherwise Under those circumstances; That being the case; In that case; If so; All else being equal Otherwise, this effect will continue into the future.”“All else being equal, the economic impact of this law seems positive.”

Sequential Transitions

这些转折将论文按照连续性或动作顺序组织架构,像是以参照先前提到的信息,以标示出额外插入的信息和以总结论文的方式。一连串的转折是建构架构的必经过程,帮助读者理解整个过程。

目的

常用用法

常用句

范文

以顺序做组织 Initially; Secondly; Thirdly; (First/Second/Third); Last First of all; To start with; In the (first/second/third) place Initially, subjects were asked to write their names.”“First of all, dolphins are the smartest creatures in the sea.”
展现延续性 Subsequently; Previously; Afterwards; Eventually; Next; After (this)   Subsequently, subjects were taken to their rooms.”“Afterwards, they were asked about their experiences.”
总结/重复信息 (Once) again; Summarizing (this) To repeat; As (was) stated before; As (was) mentioned earlier/above Summarizing this data, it becomes evident that there is a pattern.”“As mentioned earlier, pollution has become an increasing problem.”
暂时切换/再回归主题 Incidentally; Coincidentally; Anyway By the way; to resume; Returning to the subject; At any rate Coincidentally, the methods used in the two studies were similar.”“Returning to the subject, this section will analyze the results.”
归结 / 总结 Thus; Hence; Ultimately; Finally; Therefore; Altogether; Overall; Consequently To conclude; As a final point; In conclusion; Given these points; In summary; To sum up Ultimately, these results will be valuable to the study of X.”“In conclusion, there are three things to keep in mind—A, B, and C.”

如何挑选正确的转折用法

转折用法是写作中相当普遍的用法,但也应为很好用所以容易被误用或滥用,导致写作质量不佳。以下提供一些技巧帮助你挑选出最适当的转折用法:

  • Check for overused, awkward, or absent transitions when you are reading through and/or editing your paper. Don’t spend too much time trying to find the “perfect” transition while writing the paper.
  • When you a place where a transition could connect ideas, establish relationships, and make it easier for the reader to understand your point, use the list to find a suitable transition term or phrase.
  • Similarly, if you have repeat some terms again and again, find a substitute transition from the list and use that instead. This will help vary your writing and enhance communication of ideas.
  • Read the beginning of each paragraph. Did you include a transition? If not, look at the information in that paragraph and of the preceding paragraph and ask yourself: “How does this information connect?” Then locate the best transition from the list.
  • Check the structure of your paper—are your ideas clearly laid out in order? You should be able to locate sequence terms such as “first,” “second,” “following this,” “another,” “in addition,” “finally,” “in conclusion,” etc. These terms will help outline your paper for the reader.

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其他网站资源

MSU Writing Center. Transition Words.

UW-Madision Writing Center. Transition Words and Phrases.

 

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