掌握研究报告中的问答环节技巧

学术英语,学界信息

如何掌握研究报告中问答环节技巧

当我们进行研究报告时,如何面对观众们的问题可能是最头疼的部分之一。除了必须面对在学术同行面前发言的压力之外,更有许多因素导致回答问题变得困难,例如:沟通上的困难、缺乏相关讯息、无法确切的了解问题的意思、或什至是无法清楚地听到提问者所说的话。即使对自己的研究主题有非常透彻的了解,这些观众的提问都可能带给研究者非常大的挫败感,就算是对于最优秀的研究者也不例外。

但即便如此,并不代表我们无法事先准备Q&A环节,更不代表我们无法将此问答环节部分进行得更流畅顺利。以下霍华斯为大家提供一个全面具体的方法,来应对做研究报告过程中可能遇到的各式提问。另外,我们也提供大家一些建议,以帮助各位研究者应对难缠的问题及尴尬的场面。

报告之前

在进行报告之前,我们可以使用一些基本的策略进行事前的准备,以避免毫无头绪地面对各种提问。

  • 列出你可能被问的问题

  • 把你的问题分成1)可回答的问题 2)你无法或不想回答的问题

在写下的问题当中,有些是你很乐意回答的,但有些是你没有办法回答的,或是你不想要回答的(至少在观众面前不愿意回答)。将列出的问题分成这几个类别,便可以清楚的知道,当面对各种问题时,你可以采取的应对方法。

  • 练习大声地问问题与回答问题

审阅每个列出的问题,并试着用不同的方式来提问,就算是同一个问题,也可能有各式各样的提问方式。接下来,根据自己对于研究主题所拥有的知识,以及我们下列要领中所提供的范例句子,你可以试着练习回答问题。 Practice makes perfect!

应对Q&A的步骤

第一步: 打开Q&A页面—告诉听众你要开始开始问答环节步骤了。

演讲者: “I will now answer any questions you have about this research. Please speak slowly and clearly.”

第二步: 阐明问题—在回答问题之前,要先阐明对方的问题。以下提供一些句子来帮助你阐明在不同的情况的问题。

情況 应答方式
没听清问题时 “Sorry, I didn’t catch all of that.”“Could you repeat your question, please?”
不理解问题时 “I’m afraid I don’t understand.”“Could you please rephrase the question?”
不太确定问题细节时 “I don’t quite understand…”“Are you asking about (the 1995 study)?”“Are you referring to (the peptides discussed in Figure 2.3)?”“Do you mean (the patients in the placebo group) ?”“Could you be more specific?”
在问题被复述后,仍然不理解时 “I’m sorry. I still don’t understand your question.”“Could I come back to you later?”“Could you please talk to me after the session?”

第三步: 回答问题—在理解问题后,就可以回答提问的人了。

3a. 礼貌的回答方式—当你回答的时候,先对提问者表示感谢或称赞他们,会是一个很好的开头方式。

以礼貌地开头进行答复
“That’s a great question. Thank you for asking.”
“I appreciate your question and am happy to answer it.”
“What a thoughtful question! I’m glad you asked.”
“What an interesting question! I’ll do my best to answer.”

3b. 提供恰当的回答:—每一个问题都是独特的,而且有很多不同的回答方式,以下提供多样的范例,让你根据不同的状况使用。

第一种类型:: 你无法或不想回答问题时。. 如果你无法或不想回答问题,你可以用以下的句型回答提问者。

情况 应答方式
不知道答案时 “I’m sorry. I’m afraid I don’t know the answer to that question.”“I will look into that and follow up with you.”“I can’t answer now, but I will try to find out more about this.”
不想在该场合回答时 “I’m sorry–could we discuss this issue after the session?”“I’d rather discuss this issue privately please.”
没有充分信息回答时 “We aren’t aware of any details at this time.”“We don’t have information about this yet.”
必须等待进一步研究执行时 “We are awaiting further research on this issue.”“We need to do more studies to answer this.”

第一种类型的回答范例: 以下是研究相关的实际问题范例与应答方式。

情况 问题范例 应答方式
不知道答案时 “What about the data collected between 1994 and 1997?” “I’m sorry. I’m afraid I don’t know the answer to that question.”
不想在该场合回答时 “When is the latest version of this study going to be published?” “I’d rather discuss this issue privately, please.”
你没有充分的信息时 “What are the findings of other state hospitals on this issue?” “We don’t have information about this yet.”“We are awaiting further research on this.”

第二种类型:: 你可以回答但是需要多一点时间或是更多细节。 有时候你需要进一步阐清问题或给自己一些思考时间来回答问题,以下是几种回答方式来告诉听众你的需求是什么。

情况 应答方式
必须仔细想想问题时 [*Repeat the whole question or part of it]“Please give me a moment to think about this question.”“Just one moment—I need to consider my answer.”
需要该问题的更多细节信息时 “Just so I understand…”“Are you referring to (the methods of analysis or to the experiment)?“Do you mean (the Smith study from 2014)?“What information are you referring to exactly?”

第二种类型的回答范例:: 以下是研究相关的真实问题范例与回答。

情况 问题范例 应答方式
必须仔细想想问题时 “Were all sample groups in the study in the same cohort?” In the same cohort? Please give me a moment to think about this question.”
需要该问题的更多细节信息时 “What about the data collected between 1994 and 1997?” The data collected between 1994 and 1997? Which data are you referring to exactly?”

研究发表中不同部份的Q&A问题

除了可能需要回答有关于研究整体的问题,根据研究报告的不同部份,提问者提出的问题也可能不同,下面提供大家各个论文部分中可能会遇到的问题范例及建议的回应方式。

研究方法的相关问题

问题/评论 应答方式
“Have you used this approach?” “No, but thank you for your input. We will look into this.”“We considered this approach. But there were some problems.”
“Why did you use this method of analysis?” “There were several reasons for this. First…”“We found several other methods to be problematic.”“We have explained our rational fully in the paper.”
“What limitations to the study did you identity?” “We didn’t identify any specific limitations.”“We did identify a couple of limitations. These include…”

关于研究发现与研究结果的应用方面的问题

问题/评论 可能的应答方式
“Could you elaborate on the results of X?” “Yes. What results would you like to know about?”“I’m afraid I can’t say more about the findings now.”
“What are the implications of these findings?” “Most importantly, these findings imply that…”“There are several implications here. First…”“I’m afraid I can’t say more about the implications now.”
“Could this study impact any other related areas of research?” “These results might impact areas of (medicine/patient care/administration, etc.).”“We need more information to answer this question.”“Our conclusions are limited to this area of research.”

 

检视和使用视觉辅助材料—必要时,你可以检视报告的笔记和使用辅助材料,例如视觉辅助材料等待来帮助你回答问题。

情况 问题范例 应答方式
重新检视报告的某部分内容 “Could you repeat what methods of analysis you used?” “As I mentioned earlier…”“Let’s look at this slide again…”“Yes. Looking at slide 34…”
使用视觉辅助材料 “Are the data in Figure 4 representative of all sample groups?”“What is being measured in Table 2.2?” “Let’s take a look at this figure again.”“As you can see in this chart/graph/figure…”“Let me explain this figure again.”

成功的Q&A应对技巧—把自己的态度、姿势与声音调整好,跟准备好 Q&A的回答一样重要。这些简单的技巧能够帮助你顺利地结束上台报告。

  1. 挺直腰板—这样的站姿能够帮助自己在上台讲话时有更多的自信
  2. 保持友好和善的态度—时常微笑并礼貌地回答问题能够让你的问答环节更加轻松。
  3. 从容地回答问题—听完问题后,不需要急着回答,先确定自己理解每一个问题再回答。
  4. 将自己的联系方式用一个单独的幻灯片展示—这样一来,还有其他问题的听众可以通过这些方式来向你提问。

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Other Related Resources

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