学术论文中引用证据和实例时好用的41种英语句型

学术论文写作,研究论文写作

How to Introduce Evidence and Examples1 研究要求我们要放大检视资讯和评估该资讯的可信度。因此,当我们考虑到不同的情况时,我们检查实证数据并写下详细的说明来解释我们的结论。构建我们研究叙述的一个重要组成部分是提供证据和实例。 我们提供的说明能强化我们的结论也可以让读者心生怀疑,因此使用适当且符合逻辑的句子引导读者理解内容。

介绍证据和实例的时机

证据和实例为我们的说明打下一个稳定的基础。没有实例辅助的话,论文的结论缺乏可信度。然而流水帐般的实例验证的糟糕程度不亚于无法提供任何材料或资讯来佐证结论。因此,当你介绍实例时,确保适时聪明的挑选证据,和使用适当和清楚的句子来说明这个实例如何论证你的结论。 你应该要介绍并连结你的实例论证,当你

  • 说明非「普遍知识」的资讯 ;
  • 根据某个数据来引导结论、推论或说明义涵;
  • 需要澄清一个先前的叙述,使用范例说明能够更加清楚的时候;
  • 需要找出某个类别的代表性范例;
  • 想要区分概念时;
  • 想要利用某个情况来强调某个特点

建议使用的介绍性句型

以下是根据功能的不同,我们列出了几个句型,虽然这个列表并不详尽,但至少能提供几个可以使用的短语类型。

目的 介紹性句型 范文
stating information that is not “common knowledge”
  • [use relevant style guide’s in-text citation format]
  • As [Author] indicated/ stated/ discovered
  • According to [Author],
  • As Smith indicated in a 2010 study . . .
  • According to Marks and Peters . . .
drawing conclusions, making inferences, or suggesting implications based on specific data
  • suggests
  • as evidenced/ suggested/ indicated by
  • based on
  • can be seen/ observed when
  • as seen in
  • which is made apparent when
  • is demonstrated by/ through/ when
  • hinges on
  • The strong negative correlation suggests that . . .
  • As evidenced/ suggested/ indicated by their enlarged adrenal glands, patients with . . .
  • Based on self-reported survey results . . .
  • This phenomenon can be seen/ observed when wind speeds exceed . . .
  • As seen in the high recurrence rates of . . .
  • The causal link between A and B, which is made apparent when B triggers . . .
  • The efficacy of chocolate as a cure for unhappiness is demonstrated by survey results highlighted in . . .
  • This conclusion hinges on . . .
clarifying a prior statement
  • for example
  • for instance
  • by way of illustration
  • as an example
  • to clarify
  • to explain further
  • namely
  • to be specific
  • that is,
  • in other words,
  • This occurrence is rare. For example, only one in twenty . . .
  • It is unlikely that current population growth rates are sustainable. For instance, several major coastal cities are already suffering from . . .
  • By way of illustration, less than 20% of new matriculants feel prepared for . . .
  • As an example, when a country faces economic recession, polls indicate that over 80% of the population supports . . .
  • To clarify, not all government-funded facilities provide . . .
  • To explain further, large doses of Agent O can trigger . . .
  • Millennials prefer flexible work conditions, namely the ability to work remotely.
  • To be specific, bull markets can . . .
  • That is, significant and sudden drops in temperature can . . .
  • In other words, short bursts of high-intensity ultrasound can . . .
identifying representative examples of a category
  • for example/ instance
  • such as*
  • e.g.
  • one/ another example
  • like*
  • excluding
  • including
  • an example being

*NOTE: “such as” and “like” have two different uses. “Such as” introduces a specific example that is part of a category. “Like” suggests the listed items are similar to, but not included in, the topic discussed.

  • Typhoons are considered acts of God, for example/ instance.
  • The island is home to many native carnivorous plants, such as Venus flytraps.
  • The only known bioluminescent vertebrates are fish (e.g. the anglerfish and lantern fish).
  • One/ another example of this exception is . . .
  • I prefer outdoor sports like mountain climbing because they allow me to enjoy nature while exercising.
  • All mammals, excluding humans, stop drinking milk at a young age.
  • All stars, including our sun, . . .
  • Hawks feast on rodents, an example being . . .
distinguishing concepts
  • in a similar case
  • unlike the case of
  • in the same way
  • as a case in point
  • in a typical situation
  • in a normal scenario
  • In a similar case, a male patient with arthritis . . .
  • Unlike a single-blind study, a double-blind study reduces the risk of observer bias.
  • Redundancy and wordiness can be reduced in the same way: through careful editing.
  • As a case in point, let’s look at the situation in which . . .
  • In a typical situation, marsupials would . . .
  • In a normal scenario, cortisol suppressant effects . . .
emphasizing a point by highlighting a specific situation
  • for example
  • indeed
  • in fact
  • notably
  • markedly
  • as a case in point
  • Nocturnal marsupials, for example, have . . .
  • Indeed, since the World Health Organization declared an end to the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo . . .
  • Ice-free habitats around Antarctica, in fact, have . . .
  • High carbon steel alloys, notably, undergo a transformation when . . .
  • Markedly, the deserts irregular rainfall levels have . . .
  • As a case in point, the last known male northern white rhinoceros . . .

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