|stating information that is not “common knowledge”
- [use relevant style guide’s in-text citation format]
- As [Author] indicated/ stated/ discovered
- According to [Author],
- As Smith indicated in a 2010 study . . .
- According to Marks and Peters . . .
|drawing conclusions, making inferences, or suggesting implications based on specific data
- as evidenced/ suggested/ indicated by
- based on
- can be seen/ observed when
- as seen in
- which is made apparent when
- is demonstrated by/ through/ when
- hinges on
- The strong negative correlation suggests that . . .
- As evidenced/ suggested/ indicated by their enlarged adrenal glands, patients with . . .
- Based on self-reported survey results . . .
- This phenomenon can be seen/ observed when wind speeds exceed . . .
- As seen in the high recurrence rates of . . .
- The causal link between A and B, which is made apparent when B triggers . . .
- The efficacy of chocolate as a cure for unhappiness is demonstrated by survey results highlighted in . . .
- This conclusion hinges on . . .
|clarifying a prior statement
- for example
- for instance
- by way of illustration
- as an example
- to clarify
- to explain further
- to be specific
- that is,
- in other words,
- This occurrence is rare. For example, only one in twenty . . .
- It is unlikely that current population growth rates are sustainable. For instance, several major coastal cities are already suffering from . . .
- By way of illustration, less than 20% of new matriculants feel prepared for . . .
- As an example, when a country faces economic recession, polls indicate that over 80% of the population supports . . .
- To clarify, not all government-funded facilities provide . . .
- To explain further, large doses of Agent O can trigger . . .
- Millennials prefer flexible work conditions, namely the ability to work remotely.
- To be specific, bull markets can . . .
- That is, significant and sudden drops in temperature can . . .
- In other words, short bursts of high-intensity ultrasound can . . .
|identifying representative examples of a category
- for example/ instance
- such as*
- one/ another example
- an example being
*NOTE: “such as” and “like” have two different uses. “Such as” introduces a specific example that is part of a category. “Like” suggests the listed items are similar to, but not included in, the topic discussed.
- Typhoons are considered acts of God, for example/ instance.
- The island is home to many native carnivorous plants, such as Venus flytraps.
- The only known bioluminescent vertebrates are fish (e.g. the anglerfish and lantern fish).
- One/ another example of this exception is . . .
- I prefer outdoor sports like mountain climbing because they allow me to enjoy nature while exercising.
- All mammals, excluding humans, stop drinking milk at a young age.
- All stars, including our sun, . . .
- Hawks feast on rodents, an example being . . .
- in a similar case
- unlike the case of
- in the same way
- as a case in point
- in a typical situation
- in a normal scenario
- In a similar case, a male patient with arthritis . . .
- Unlike a single-blind study, a double-blind study reduces the risk of observer bias.
- Redundancy and wordiness can be reduced in the same way: through careful editing.
- As a case in point, let’s look at the situation in which . . .
- In a typical situation, marsupials would . . .
- In a normal scenario, cortisol suppressant effects . . .
|emphasizing a point by highlighting a specific situation
- for example
- in fact
- as a case in point
- Nocturnal marsupials, for example, have . . .
- Indeed, since the World Health Organization declared an end to the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo . . .
- Ice-free habitats around Antarctica, in fact, have . . .
- High carbon steel alloys, notably, undergo a transformation when . . .
- Markedly, the deserts irregular rainfall levels have . . .
- As a case in point, the last known male northern white rhinoceros . . .