英文论文引用及参考文件记载方式

学术论文写作

大家好,我們是英文批改wordvice(English editing proofreading)

一、引用(Quotations)

    1. 如果引用字数少于40个,不必另起一段。
    2. 如果引用字数超过40个,那就称为成段引用,需要另起一段,每一行从左右两边各缩进5-7个空格,下面每一行跟上面的对齐(见例1),但如果还要引用第二段,第二段开始应在左边再缩进5个空格(见例2)。
      成段引用不需要引号,但要在引用结束时标明页码。

例1:Raymond Williams(1985) explains that the word career has all but lost its original meaning. He comments that

Career is now so regularly used to describe a person’s progress in life, or, be deviation

from this, his profession or vocation that it is difficult to remember, in the same context,

its original meaning of a racecourse and a gallop—though in some contexts, as in the phrase “careering about”, these survive. (p. 10)

例2:

Raymond Williams(1985) explains that the word career has all but lost its original meaning. He comments that

Career is now so regularly used to describe a person’s progress in life, or, be deviation

from this, his profession or vocation that it is difficult to remember, in the same context,

its original meaning of a racecourse and a gallop—though in some contexts, as in the phrase “careering about”, these survive.

Career appeared in English…(p.10)

二、引证(Parenthetical reference citations in text

如果用某个作者具体的话或论点来进行引证,要注明作者的姓和出版年份。这样可以从参考书目中帮助读者确定信息来源。下面将对各种不同情况的引证一一介绍。

    1. 如果是间接引用,即不引用原话,可以不用引号,只注明作者和出版年。如果是直接引用,即引用原话,必须用引号,并且除了标明作者和出版年以外,还要标明具体页码。当然,你如果希望精确出处,即使是间接引用,也可以标明页码。
  • As metaphors for the workings of nature, Darwin used the tangled bank, the tree of life, and the face of nature (Gould, 1989).
  • Darwin used the metaphor of tree “to express the other form of interconnectedness—genealogical rather than ecological” (Gould, 1989, p. 14).
    1. 如果在你的正文中提到你要引用的作者,只需标明出版年,要紧随其姓氏后用括号标明。
  • Gould (1989) attributes Darwin’s success to his gift for making the appropriate metaphor.
    1. 如果在你的正文中没有提到你要引用的作者,则需在引用结束时用括号标明作者和出版年。如果是直接引用还要标明页码。
  • It has been argued that the teachers’ role is to provide the students with optimal conditions which can facilitate learning so that students can achieve similar successful results (Bloom, 1976).
    1. 如果在你的正文中提到你要引用的作者,而且是直接引用,则需紧随其姓氏后用括号标明出版年,然后在引用的引号后用括号标明具体页码。
  • Gould (1989) explains that Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life “to explain the other form of interconnectedness—genealogical rather than ecological—and to illustrate both success and failure in the history of life” (p. 14).
    1. 如果你要引用有两个作者的著作,要标明两个作者的姓氏,如在括号中出现,可以用&符号,如果在正文中出现,则必须用and。
  • Sexual-selection theory has been used to explore patterns of insect mating (Alcock & Thornhill, 1983)…. Alcock and Thornhill (1983) also demonstrate….
    1. 如果你要引用有3-5个作者的著作,第一次引用时,列出所有的姓氏,以后引用时,只列出第一位作者的姓氏,然后后面就不用都列了,用et al 表示就可以了。
  • Scientists have isolated a gene connected to circadian rhythms in plants ( Millar, Straume, Chory, Chua & Kay, 1995, p. 1163). They identified the mutations that activated light-dependent pathways (Millar, et al., 1995, p. 1165).
    1. 如果你要引用有6个以上作者的著作,不论是在第一次还是随后的引用,都只列出第一位作者的姓氏,后面的就不用列了,用et al 表示就可以了。

-Scientists have constructed a deletion map of the human Y chromosome (Vollrath et al. , 1992). … Their studies resolved a region of the chromosome into ordered intervals ( Vollrath et at. , 1992).

  1. 如果你要引用一个作者的多部著作,如果不是同一年出版的,就按照出版先后排列。如果是同一年出版的,则在其年后附上a、b 等字母以示区别,然后在参考文献目录中也应有相同的标识。如(Gould, 1987, 1989),(Bloom, 1987a, 1987b)。
  2. 如果你引用的是第二手资料,即通过别人的引用来引用某一作者,如果是间接引用,则在括号中标明(as cited in Gould, 1989),如果是直接引用,则在引号后在括号中标明(as quoted by Gould, 1989)。

三、参考文献格式(Reference forms)

  1. 期刊论文

四点需要注意:

1)论文标题和副标题的第一个字母要大写。论文标题不要加下划线,不要斜体,也不要加双引号。

2)期刊名称主要词的第一个字母要大写,然后在下面加下划线。

3)使用阿拉伯数字表示期刊的卷数。如果有期数,把它放在卷数后面的括号里。

4)使用阿拉伯数字表示论文的页码,把它放在卷数后面,如果有期数,就放在期数的后面。

引用有一位作者的论文时,

Block, E. L. (1986). The comprehension strategies of second language readers. TESOL Quarterly. 20 (3), 463-494.

Boyle, R. P. (1979). Path analysis and ordinal data. American Journal of Sociology. 75, 461-480.

引用有两位作者的论文时,两位作者的姓名拼写形式都要先姓后名,中间用&连接。

Bracht, R. M., & Glass, G. V. (1968). The external validity of experiments. American Educational Research Journal. 5 (4), 437-474.

引用有两位作者以上的论文时,要把所有作者的姓名列出,中间用逗号隔开,在最后一位作者的姓名前加&符号。

Dornbusch, S. M., Carlsmith, J. M., Bushwall, S. J., Ritter, P. L., Leiderman, H., & Hastorf, A. H. (1985). Single parents, extended households, and the control of adolescents. Child Development, 56, 326-341.

    1. 报纸文章。

Morain, D. (1993, June 7). Poor counties hit hardest by budget cuts. The Los Angeles Times, p. A1.
Broad, W. J. (1989, March 14). Flight of shuttle begins flawlessly. The New York Times, pp. A1, C7.

  1. 尚未发表的文章,在表示出版年的括号里标明in press 字样。见例17。

例17:

Smith, S. (in press). An experiment in bilingual education. Journal of Bilingual Education.

  1. 著作
    1. 引用编著时,主编的名字放在作者名字的地方,并把“Ed.”放在其后的括号中,如果主编是两个或两个以上,那就用“Eds.”。编著书名的第一个字母要大写,书名要加下划线。
    2. 版数(如第二版)放在书名后的括号中。
    3. 先写出版地,再写出版社名。
    4. 引用一位作者的著作时
      1. - Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York: Newbury House Publisher.
      2. 引用两位作者的著作时。
      3.  Forsyth, A., & Thornhill, R. (1983). The evolution of insect mating. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
      4. 引用非第一版的著作时
        1. Dreyfus, H. (1989). What computers can’t do (2nded.). New York: Harper & Row.
        2. 引用非第一次印刷的著作时
        3.  Darwin, C. (1964). On the origin of the species: A facsimile of the first edition (Introd. Ernest Mayer). Cambridge: Harvard University Press. (Original work published in 1859)
        4. 同样文中的括号夹注应该有两个时间:(Darwin, 1859/1964)
  • 引用编著的著作时
    – Stanton, D. C. (Ed.). (1987). The female autograph: Theory and practice of autobiography from the tenth to the twentieth century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    – Dubin, F., Eskey, D., & Grabe, W. (Eds.). (1986). Teaching second language reading for academic purposes. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
  • 引用多卷本著作时,应标明第一卷的出版年以及最后一卷的出版年,还要表明具体的卷数。
    – Ripley, C. P. (Ed.). (1985-1992). The black abolitionist papers (Vols. 1-5). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
  • 如果只引用了多卷本中的其中一卷,见例25。
    – Ripley, C. P. (Ed.). (1987). The black abolitionist papers (Vol. 2). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
  • 引用翻译著作时,应在著作名称后用括号标明译者。
    – Derrida, J. (1976). Of grammatology (G. Spivak, Trans.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. (Original work published in 1967)
    1. 文集中的文章

Burghardt, G. M. (1984). On the origins of play. In P. K. Smith (Ed.), Play in animals and humans (pp. 5-42). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

    1. 会议论文集论文

Eble, C. C. (1976). Etiquette books as linguistic authority. In P. A. Reich (Ed.), The Second LACUS Forum, 1975 (pp. 468-475). Columbia, SC: Hornbeam.

    1. 未发表的学术会议论文

Jochens, J. (1992, October). Gender equality in law?: The case of medieval Iceland. Paper presented at the 26th Annual Conference of the Center for medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, Binghamton, NY.

    1. 未发表的学位论文,

Peters, B. (1995). The biographer as autobiographer: The case of Virginia Woolf. Unpublished master’s thesis, Pace University, Riverdale, NY.

    1. 汉语参考文献格式

文秋芳. (2000). 《外语口语测试与教学》. 上海: 上海外语教育出版社.
文秋芳. (2001). 英语学习者动机、观念、策略的变化规律与特点. 《外语教学与研究》. (2), 65-70.
朱永生, 严世清. (2001). 《系统功能语言学多维思考》. 上海: 上海外语教育出版社
苗力田(主编). (1994). 《亚里士多德全集》(第9卷). 北京: 中国人民大学出版社.
克罗齐. (1984). 《作为表现的科学和一般语言学的美学的历史》(王天清译) . 北京: 中国社会科学出版社.
胡壮麟. (2005). 走近巴赫金的符号王国. 收入王铭玉, 宋尧(主编), 《符号语言学》(pp. 182-195). 上海: 上海外语教育出版社.

出處: http://wenku.baidu.com/link?url=gQ0G8oTMEDiAJ0txDZR4RTvkDQ_kvAQGM7QbjCnUdf4jikUGk2AG1psE0fAtglfWmI4iE_As2DwLsjZYah-4NYvcSfZ7DE2siK_jeojwwiO

 

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