超过论文字数限制,我能怎么改?

学术论文写作

reduce word count - editing tips - eliminating prepositions (1)

学会缩减英语字数的技巧对于职场人或是学生来说都是有益无害,因为能够帮你将内容改得更为简洁有力,不用再担心超过论文规定字数,传达信息更清晰。作为修改技巧系列的第二篇,这篇着重在英文介词的缩减。在中文,我们没有介词的用法,因此除了不会用之外,更糟糕的是用错。

Tip # 2:  删除 “Of” (改写介系词片语)

参考以下范文:

  1. The blood pressure of the mice was elevated.
  2. The elephant teetered along the edge of the cliff.
  3. The focus of this project was to study the effects of increased global temperatures on local fish hatcheries.

可以发现找不出一个文法错误的地方,但是你有发现他们超级wordy吧!现在就要来示范怎样利用消除介词把它们缩短。

  1. The blood pressure of the mice was elevated. [8 words]
  2. The elephant teetered along the edge of the cliff. [9 words]
  3. The focus of this project was to study the effects of increased global temperatures on local fish hatcheries. [19 words]

我们将可以删除的介词用红色标出

  1. The mice’s blood pressure was elevated. [6 words]
  2. The elephant teetered along the cliff’s edge. [7 words]
  3. This project examined how increased global temperatures affect local fish hatcheries. [11 words]

以上的范文只要用两个字去替换删掉的介系词片语就可以成功缩短字数了。假设文章中充满上方这一类的句型,那删的字数可多了。

可以删掉介词的情况有很多,上方范文只是一小部分,而这一篇文章提到的也是其中之一。记忆力好的人应该还可以想起来使用动词名词形容易让人写出被动语态。

下方介绍那些状况的介系词片语你可以修改,同时介绍该怎么修改。

  1. 改成所有格: 许多高度相关的情况下,例如两个名词之间的所有权,就可以删掉中间的介词。例如,句子中有「Noun1 of Noun 2」或「Location1 in Location2」,直接将第二个名词往前移并加上「’」 变成Noun1’s Noun2。
    • The approval of the Food and Drug Administration was received yesterday. → The Food and Drug Administration’s approval was received yesterday.
    • The studies were conducted at Max Laboratories in Chicago. → The studies were conducted at Chicago’s Max Laboratories.
  2. 改成主动语态:当被动语态的句子后面跟着「by」的时候 (Noun1 was/were + past participle + by + Noun2),把by后面的名词改成句子主词写成主动语态。
    • The approval of the plan was given by the committee. →  The committee approved the plan yesterday.
  3. 替换副词形式: 某些介系词片语可以改的更为坚定,例如:由「with」开头的片语。
    • The seller agreed with reluctance. →  The seller reluctantly agreed.
    • He spoke with hesitation when he accepted the deal. → He spoke hesitantly as he accepted the deal.
    • By chance, I finished work on time. →  Fortuitously, I finished work on time.
  4. 改成更精准的动词: 有些介系词片语可以用更有力、精准的动词替换掉。可多加注意动词使用「get」和「make」。
    • He got to the finish line. → He reached the finish line.
    • Increased benefits can make up for long working hours. →  Increased benefits can offset long working hours.
  5. 避免动词名词形 (请参考缩减字数:避免动词名词形)
  6. 检视该片语的重要性:有些介系词片语在句中并没有任何作用或价值,建议直接删掉。
    • In our current situation, we should decline the offer. → We should decline the offer.
  7. 尝试wh-子句:动词跟「说」(例:ask, say, admit, argue, reply, agree, mention, explain, suggest, etc.) 或「心理状态」像是thinking、studying和deciding (例: know, understand, suppose, remember, forget, wonder, study, examine, decide, etc.)有关的,建议大胆尝试wh-子句来写出有力简洁的句子。
    • The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of solar radiation on bioluminescence. →  This study examined how solar radiation affects bioluminescence.
    • Our mission was to conduct an investigation into the relationship between sunlight and plant growth. → We investigated how sunlight affects plant growth.

 

小试身手

  1. The house of my mother sat on a big hill.
  2. The licensing of the software will be completed next week.
  3. The variables changed with little difference.
  4. The aim of our research was to assess the correlation between variable A and DNA replication rates.
  5. This paper was written to explore the way in which extra recess time and the test performance of students are related.
  6. To get back to you, we are looking back on what was done to figure out what we can do moving forward. [This one's hard. How short can you make this one?]

 

 

 

 

 

解答:

  1. My mother’s house sat on a big hill.
  2. The software licensing will be completed next week.
  3. The variables hardly changed.
  4. Our research aimed to assess how variable A affects DNA replication rates.
  5. This paper explores how extra recess time affects students’ test performance.
  6. We are examining the past to determine how we should proceed.

 

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