论文摘要的动词时态: 过去时?现在时?

学术论文写作,研究论文写作

论文摘要的动词时态使用引起不同的意见讨论,大家从以前硕博念过来,受过一套写作方式教育,有冲突时难免引起讨论,希望藉由这篇文章稍稍整理该议题。

写论文摘要时,可以使用到几个时态。我们先前提到过去式是在摘要中提到研究结果时使用的 (ie, observations),这依然是对的。但时态是会根据不同的内容而改变。最近的确可以发现到不少在摘要中使用现在时的情况,但这不是因为英文语法改变了,听听我们怎么说吧。

时态的变化是依据句子主词而改变,一般来说:

  • Any statements of general fact would be written using the present tense.
  • Any discussion about prior research would be explained using the past tense.
  • If the subject of your sentence is your study or the article you are writing (eg “Our study demonstrates…,” or “Here, we show…”), then you should use the present tense.
  • If you are stating a conclusion or an interpretation, use present tense.
  • If the subject of your sentence is an actual result or observation (e.g. “Mice in Group B developed…”), you would use past tense.

如果你被教导用现在时写摘要,那是因为教授希望你专注在分享你的研究结果解析而非简单地将结果又叙述一遍。

想要进一步了解范文,可以参考 Nature 的摘要

  • We see present tense for general facts (“The anaerobic formation and oxidation of methane involve…”).
  • We see present tense when the study/article is the subject or is the thing you are referring to (“Here [this article] we show that an anaerobic thermophilic enrichment culture …”).
  • However, when we talk about an actual observation, past tense is used (“Genes encoding 16S rRNA…were repeatedly retrieved from marine subsurface sediments…”).

就像上面你看到的,很大部分的摘要都是以现在时写成的,但这都是因为摘要内容皆着重于作者的解释并非研究观察或是研究方法,希望这篇文章能够梳理您对于时态使用的疑惑。

 

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