论文字数超过限制时,该如何缩减?

学术论文写作

reduce word count - editing tips - avoid nominalizations (2)

英文字数过多时,可以怎么删减字数? 除了透过整合句子之外,是否还有其他方法?

Tip # 1:  动词优先(避免名词化)

先看看以下范文:

  1. We should take into consideration several factors.
  2. He must make a decision about what to do.
  3. They gave us information about the new research program.

上方句子在文法上是完全正确,但因为不直接使用动词而选择该动词的名词型而导致字数变多且不够直接与简洁。

  1. We should take into consideration several factors. [7个字]
  2. He must make a decision about what to do. [9个字]
  3. They gave us information about the new research program. [9个字]

红色部分就是名词化,我们可以将这部分直接用一个动词替换,建议写作时多注意句型 

  1. We should consider several factors. [5个字]
  2. He must decide about what to do. [7个字]
  3. They informed us about the new research program. [8个字]

动词名词化还有另一个缺点就是容易写出被动语态结构:

 × The analysis of how X-factor impacts B gene expression was conducted. [11个字]

 We analyzed X-factor’s impact on B gene expression. [8个字]

利用把名词化转成一个动词,轻轻松松把句子转成主动语态并成功缩减字数。

如果你查找常见的动词名词化,可以发现一个模式。动词使用像是“make”和“take”,动名词(verb + ing),或名词由-tion,-sion,-ment,-ence,和-ance结尾的,很高机率都有一个相对应 动词, 所以当你在修改英文时,利用寻找功能找出这些结尾和动词后修正就行。

什么时候该修改动词名词化?

有时候动词名词化的确是必须或无法避免的,但目前我们是过度使用了。下面我们列出常见的应修正名词化的情况:

  1. 无意义动词 + 动词名词形:删除无意义的,将动词名词形转换为主要动词。
    • Joe will conduct research on the impact of the recent drought on local wildlife. → Joe will research the recent drought’s impact on local wildlife.
    • The board will make a decision next week about whether to accept you next week. → The board will decide next week whether to accept you.
  2. 当动词名词形是被动语态结构的主词时:找出真正的主词,并将动词名词形转换为该主题的动词。
    • The approval of the plan was given by the committee yesterday. → The committee approved the plan yesterday.
  3. 动词名词形两两相接:转化第一个动词名词形为动词,保留第二个或将其转化成疑问子句。
    • Their interpretation of the implementation of the institute’s program was insightful. → They insightfully interpreted how the institute implemented its program.
    • First was their introduction of their analysis of dreams by the trauma patients. → First, they introduced how they analyzed the trauma patients’ dreams.
  4. 当主词中的动词名词形与谓词的动词名词形时:将两个动词名词形转成动词,考量两者的关系并加上合理的连接词(because, when, if, although, even though, despite, etc.)。
    • Her understanding of the situation was evidenced by the quitting of her job. → She understood the situation … she quit her job → When she quit her job, she showed she understood the situation.

 

现在一起来练习今天所学习到的修改技巧。

初阶

  1. We made an agreement not to buy the house.
  2. They reached the conclusion that we should run a new cohort study.
  3. Our review of the test results will begin tomorrow.

进阶

  1. The discovery of a new planet by the Frankfurt Observatory excited the scientific community.
  2. The failure of the staff to organize the festival properly was a disappointment to us.
  3. The undertaking of building the new company was complicated by their lack of experience.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Answer key:

  1. We agreed to not buy the house.
  2. They concluded that we should run a new cohort study.
  3. Starting tomorrow, we will review the test results.
  4. The Frankfurt Observatory discovered a new planet, which excited the scientific community.
  5. When the staff failed to organize the festival properly, they disappointed us.
  6. They lacked experience, which complicated how they built the new company.

 

 

 

 

 

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