英语标点符号怎么用?一次学好连字号、括弧、引号等用法

英语写作

Hyphen ( – ) 连字型

  1. 连字型大小主要用于某些首码 (如: self-, ex- 和all- ) 后和构成复合词。

ex-husband〈前夫〉, brand-new(全新的), poorly-dressed(衣着破烂的)

I have forty-thousand or fifty-thousand dollars.

I want to obtain the whole-year or half-year lease of the apartment.

当两个或两个以上复合词并用,而各复合词连字型大小后的部分相同时,各复合词的相同部分只出现一次,应改为the whole- or half-year lease.

  1. 用于区分同一词源。
  2. 当某复合词中出现重复的字母或过多的母音,使阅读困难时,可用连字型大小把首码和词根分开。

non-nuclear,

re-use,

semi-independent

  1. 构成某些复合数位(在英文写作中,100以下的数位应该用英文单词写出来,不可用阿拉伯数字代替

twenty-one during the year

1949-1999

one fourth [也可one-fourth] of those surveyed

  1. 用于一个词的一部分要移行:一般按音节间断开单词加连字型大小(例如:ha-ppy, 不可断为hap-py ……)或根据发音,不要把单个字母留在行尾或行首。注意一页中最后一个单词不能使用连字型大小将其置于两页。

 

 

Parenthesis( ( ) ) 圆括弧

  1. 标出表顺序的数位和字母。

(1)、(2) 等

  1. 用来表示其中插入的或附加的解释成分。这个插入成分可以是单词、片语或句子。但要注意,括弧会削弱强调作用。因此,如果要强调插入的句子成份,则要用破折号。

They might take a walk together (remember feet) and see the neighborhood with fresh, new eyes.

proofreading

Quotation Marks ( “ ” ) ( ‘ ’ ) 引号

引号分单引号 (Single Quotation Marks) 和双引号 (Double Quotation Marks)。单引号只用在一个直接引语中所含有的另一个直接引语上。

  1. 表示直接引语

“Well,” the foreigner said to him, “you look like an engineer.”

句号和逗号必须置于引号 (双引号和单引号) 之内。

He told the gunman, “I refuse to do that”; his knees, however, were shaking even as he said those words.

She called this schedule of activities her “load”; work, study, exercise, recreation, and sleep.

冒号与分号必置于引号外。

The teacher asked, “Could you understand me”?
Did the teacher ask, “Have they gone”?
Did the teacher ask, “They have gone?”
The frightened girl screamed, “Help”!
The fellow only said, “Sorry !”
He interrupted me, “Now, listen” ——and went on saying.

如果所引内容本身是疑问句或感叹句或带有破折号,问号、感叹号或破折号一般放在引号之内。否则,放在引号之外。

  1. . 标明短篇出版物的标题
    诸如杂志、报纸上的文章、短诗、短篇故事和整部书的某一章节。

Have you read “The Old Man and the Sea”?

Chapter three is entitled “The Internet.”

  1.  表示所用的词语具有特殊意义
    当俚语出现在较正式的文章中,也用引号引起来,以表示文风的有意转变。

The report contained the “facts” of the case.
The speaker owns a “fat farm” in California, which slims down rich overeaters for$2,500 a week.

  1.  用于表示引起读者注意的词语,或读者不熟悉的特殊词语

It is customary to say “You are welcome” whenever anyone says “Thank you.”
“SOS” is a message for help from a ship or aircraft when in danger.

 

 

Ellipsis ( … ) 省略号

此省略号无论出现在句首、句中、还是句尾,都是表示单词的省略。

  1. 表示直接引语中的省略

Max wrote, “… in one word, man’s consciousness, changes with every change in the conditions of his material existence ….”
注意:句后的省略号和句号的写法应是在一条直线上的四个黑点。前三个黑点表示省略号,后一个黑点表句号。

  1. 表示说话中的犹豫或迟疑

“If that the way you think … just go back to school,” he said.

  1. 表示段落或整行词句的省略,须使用一整行黑点。

 

 

Apostrophe ( ’ ) 撇号或省字型

  1. 构成名词所有格

rest my son’s

a moment’s books

A three weeks’ pay

  1. 表示词、字母、数码、符号等的复数形式

Don’t use so many ands in the sentence.

How many 5s have you got?

这与一般单词的复数形式不同,正规的写法须在s 前加 “ ’ ”,要牢记规则。除表动词的缩写外,还表一个或几个字母和数位的省略。

I’ve got it. “Yes, ma’am,” the waiter said.

注意:缩写是口语中的用法,不宜出现在书面语中。

I’d like to . . . (书面要写I would like to)

 

 

Underline ( __ ) 字底线   Italics  斜体

斜体是英语的一种独特的书写手段,但具有标点的作用,它和字底线的作用完全一样。

  1. 用于火车、飞机、轮船、太空船的名称之下> Challenger (飞机)

Apollo Nine (太空船)

  1. 用于具有一定厚度的书籍、报纸、杂志、长诗、电影、作曲的标题下

 Have you read Gone with the Wind?

  1. 在书写体中,长篇小说书名下要加字底线,如是印刷体写成斜体即可。

the Washington Post Time magazine

  1. 表示不常用的或还没有被英语这一语言所接受的外来词或短语。但外来语中的动植物科目须用字底线来表示。

In Korea, the sixty-first birthday is called huan gup (beginning of new life).

He longed for La dolce vita.

 

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