如何正确使用分号 ( ; )和冒号 ( : )?

英语写作

Semi Colon ( ; ) 分号

分号用来分离句子,效用比句号还要弱

1. 句中已经使用逗号,想要分离单字或句子时使用

I bought shiny, ripe apples; small, sweet, juicy grapes; and firm pears.

Mary’s favorite dinner foods are chicken, with Cayenne pepper; salad, with Italian dressing; toast, with garlic and butter; and soup, with scallions, cheese, and mushrooms.

The employees were Tom Hanks, the manager; Jim White, the engineer; and Dr. Jack Lee.

2. 合并句子时使用

I went to the grocery store today. I bought a ton of fruit. Apples, grapes, and pears were on sale. ->

I went to the grocery store today; I bought a ton of fruit. Apples, grapes, and pears were all on sale.

I went to the grocery store today. I bought a ton of fruit; apples, grapes, and pears were all on sale.

3. 分号用于分隔地位平等的独立子句。在某些情况下,使用分号比句点更显之间的紧密联系。

 I realize I need exercise; however, I’ll lie down first to think about it.

3. 有however、for example、thus、 however、 therefore的时候,使用分号

Mary ate dinner; however, she was hungry an hour later.
Mary’s dinner was made with several spices; for example, the chicken was sprinkled with Cayenne pepper.

 

Colon ( : ) 冒号

冒号可以接在一个单独的句子后面,做额外说明使用,例如想要读者特别注意某些重点时或其他想法。

1. 介绍目录或使用名词, 名词子句, 引用句, 举例等情况时
  1. 列举: We covered many of the fundamentals in our writing class: grammar, punctuation, style, and voice.
  2.  写名词或名词句: My roommate gave me the things I needed most: companionship and quiet.
  3. 写引用句: Shakespeare said it best: “To thine own self be true.”
  4. 举例或说明: Many graduate students discover that there is a dark side to academia: late nights, high stress, and a crippling addiction to caffeinated beverages.
  5. 目录的额外说明: Mary’s dinner consisted of the following: salad, soup, chicken, and toast.
  6. 引用句的额外说明: The words Ivan spoke were very kind: “Mary, I made this dinner especially for you, dear.”
2. 合并句子时

总结或说明前一句时,可以使用分号,但两句必须是完整句子且有关联性。且时常使用分号可能有妨碍文章脉络的疑虑,需要注意。

Life is like a puzzle: half the fun is in trying to work it out.

3. 切分时间、 标题时

分号可以使用在切分时间的单位、比率或是章节

Hours and Minutes: Mary ate dinner at 9:12.
Ratio: Mary’s ratio of carbohydrate intake to protein was 3:1.
Bible verses and chapters (Matthew 2:24).

写参考文献时,列与参考文献时也使用分号。

Kurlansky, M. (2002). Salt: A world history. New York, NY: Walker and Co.

切分标题跟副标题时使用。

Everest: The Last Frontier

在正式的商业信件中,可以直接在招呼语后使用。 (较不正式的信件可以使用逗号即可)

Dear Editor:

冒号后的第一个单字须用大写吗?

如果是两个独立句子中间用分号连结,大小写没有差别,但如果是有从属关系的,后方句子必须小写。

 

 

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